Referencias e links

1. Mortimer D. Semen analysis. In: Practical Laboratory Andrology. Oxford University Press, New York, 1994.

2.World Health Organization (WHO): Laboratory Manual for the Examination of Human Semen and Sperm-Cervical Mucus Interaction. 4th. ed. Cambridge. The Press Syndicate of the University of Cambridge, 1999 (

3.Esteves, S.C., Nakazato, L.T. Espermograma e correlações clínicas. In: Neves, P.A., Netto Jr., N.R. Infertilidade Masculina; Editora Atheneu; São Paulo; Brasil; pp. 59-70, 2002.

4. Rhoden, E.L., Soares, J.B., Esteves, S.C. O que o laboratório pode fazer pelo espermatozóide. In: II consenso Brasileiro de Infertilidade Masculina. São Paulo, Outubro 2003, pág. 97-108.

5. Aitken RJ (1999) The Amoroso Lecture. The human spermatozoon—a cell in crisis? J Reprod Fertil 115, 1–7.

6. Benchaib M, Braun V, Lornage J, Hadj S, Salle B, Lejeune H,  et al. (2003) Sperm DNA fragmentation decreases the pregnancy rate in an assisted reproductive technique. Hum Reprod 18, 1023–1028.

7. Benchaib M, Lornage J, Mazoyer C, Lejeune H, Salle B, François Guerin J (2007) Sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation as a prognostic indicator of assisted reproductive technology outcome. Fertil Steril. 87(1), 93-100.

8. Carrell DT, Liu L, Peterson CM, Jones KP, Hatasaka HH, Erickson L and Campbell B (2003) Sperm DNA fragmentation is increased in couples with unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss. Arch Androl 49, 49–55.

9. Henkel R, Hajimohammad M, Stalf T, Hoogendijk C, Mehnert C, Menkveld R, et al. (2004) Influence of deoxyribonucleic acid damage on fertilization and pregnancy. Fertil Steril 81, 965–972.

10. Host E, Lindenberg S and Smidt-Jensen S (2000) The role of DNA strand breaks in human spermatozoa used for IVF and ICSI. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 79, 559–563.

11. Larson KL, DeJonge CJ, Barnes AM, Jost LK and Evenson DP (2000) Sperm chromatin structure assay parameters as predictors of failed pregnancy following assisted reproductive techniques. Hum Reprod 15, 1717–1722.

12. Morris ID, Ilott S, Dixon L and Brison DR (2002) The spectrum of DNA damage in human sperm assessed by single cell gel electrophoresis (Comet assay) and its relationship to fertilization and embryo development. Hum Reprod 17, 990–998.

13. Sakkas D, Mariethoz E, Manicardi G, Bizzaro D, Bianchi PG and Bianchi U (1999) Origin of DNA damage in ejaculated human spermatozoa. Rev Reprod 4, 31–37.

14. Shen HM, Dai J, Chia SE, Lim A and Ong CN (2002) Detection of apoptotic alterations in sperm in subfertile patients and their correlations with sperm quality. Hum Reprod 17, 1266–1273.

15. Tesarik J, Greco E and Mendoza C (2004a) Late, but not early, paternal effect on human embryo development is related to sperm DNA fragmentation. Hum Reprod 19, 611–615.

16. Tomsu M, Sharma V and Miller D (2002) Embryo quality and IVF treatment outcomes may correlate with different sperm comet assay parameters. Hum Reprod 17, 1856–1862.

17. Zorn B, Virant-klun I and Meden-Vrtovec H (2000) Semen granulocyte elastase: its relevance for the diagnosis and prognosis of silent genital tract inflammation. Hum Reprod 15, 1978–1984.